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However, official definitions notwithstanding, there remains suspicion about the proposal that infertility ( a fortiori AUFI) should be classified as such. That such is the case is demonstrated by the results of a large-scale survey conducted by Adashi et al in six European countries, the USA and Australia regarding public perceptions of infertility and its treatment. In response to the statement ‘infertility is a disease’ only 38% of respondents agreed. 14 As Ravitsky et al note regarding this study: The implications of the question are clear: if perceived as a disease, public funding for its treatment is construed as justified and what remains to be determined is its prioritization in relation to other required treatments competing for limited resources…if not, funding it may not be justified from the outset. 15

The following comments by Pemberton encapsulate this sort of scepticism: In the 1960s, those unable to conceive were referred to as the ‘involuntary childless’. Today, this has been reframed within the discourse of biomedicine as ‘infertility’, and it reflects an increasing tendency for medicine to step in to manage and provide solutions to social problems. This, of course, does not detract from the upset that childlessness can bring. But, this is grief based on a sense of failure because of an ‘abnormality’ that is culturally determined. I am not arguing that the infertile should not be free to seek assistance with conception if they choose it. My issue is whether they are entitled to treatment under the NHS. While childlessness is distressing, it is not associated with long-term disability, morbidity or mortality. It is not a disease. Rather, it is about people unable to have something that they want. This is not what the NHS is there to remedy. 16

Two main claims underlie Pemberton's comments; these will be explored in the subsections that follow. The first is that infertility should not be classed as a disease because it is only harmful to people with certain desires . The second is that infertility is a social problem but is mistakenly viewed as medical instead.

Desire, not disease?

For individuals who do not want children, infertility is, at worst, a neutral characteristic and may even prove slightly advantageous, eliminating the need to worry about accidental pregnancy. Indeed, before the advent of effective contraception and safe abortion services, infertility would have been highly advantageous to any women who didn't want children (and still is in many parts of the world). Thus, . Womens Slim Jeans Day Birger Et Mikkelsen qCYL6

However, while infertility is only harmful when the sufferer is in possession of certain desires, the same is true for many diseases and disorders; infertility is by no means unique in this respect. Take colour-blindness, for example. Arguably, while there are everyday disadvantages associated with colour-blindness, the level of harm suffered will be relatively modest provided that the person lacks certain preferences. If, however, the person wanted to be an electrician, a painter or a pilot then (at least in some countries) her ambition would be thwarted with potentially serious consequences. Colour-blindness then, while always a disability or impairment, is only seriously harmful when certain desires are present, and in certain social contexts. 18

A different kind of case in which desire and social context play an important role is where the infliction of injury confers sufficient benefit to make it worthwhile for the individual, all things considered. Perhaps the paradigm example of this is the ‘Blighty Wound’. A significant number of soldiers in World War I, faced with the prospect of death and disability, would inflict upon themselves a severe but not life-threatening injury in order to return home and avoid the front line. Horrifying cases have also been reported in which healthy young people have had limbs amputated in order to become more effective beggars, and trapped climbers have severed salvageable limbs in order to escape. In such cases, because of the person's desires and because of the social context, there may be no net harm to the individual, and there may even be benefits, all things considered. But we should nonetheless still say that the person has acquired a pathological condition, an injury or what Closer, Culver and Gert usefully term a ‘malady’. FOOTWEAR Toe post sandals Giulia Taddeucci 2Yo6U1

What follows from considering these cases? First, many pathological conditions are only harmful in the presence of certain desires. Hence, the fact that the major harms associated with infertility are dependent on the desire to have children does not mean that infertility cannot be a pathological condition. Second, many pathological conditions are only (directly) harmful in certain social contexts and may even be beneficial in others. So again, even if this is true of infertility, this does not mean that it cannot be a disease.

Medical, not social?

A related suggestion is that infertility is in fact a but is mistakenly viewed as . 22 What might this mean?

One interpretation is that infertility is more like (say) bad housing, loneliness or poverty, than a disease. Perhaps this is what Pemberton has in mind when he speaks of how talk of ‘involuntary childlessness’, has given way to a medicalised discourse of ‘infertility’. The problem with this view though is that infertility usually ‘medical’ in ways that bad housing and poverty are not. Its proximate cause is often biological, and the main option for alleviating it is medical treatment. This goes for infertility in general but applies especially forcefully to AUFI; it would be hard to sustain the claim that not having a uterus is a merely social phenomenon.

A second way of understanding the ‘social not medical’ claim is as the suggestion that infertility is more than One might, for example, compare infertility to being unusually short, or having a face or body-shape that does not conform to prevailing aesthetic norms. Characteristics like these, so the argument goes, are differences and not diseases. They are often disadvantageous to the person (and may sometimes even be ‘treated’—eg, through cosmetic surgery or human growth hormone). However, they are not diseases because the disadvantage associated with them is caused wholly or primarily by social discrimination. In cases like these, it may be argued that supporting medicalisation (by funding ‘treatments’) would be wrong because it would waste valuable resources and, perhaps more importantly, because to do so would be to collude with discrimination. For example, having darker skin in a racist (predominantly ‘white’) society is highly likely to be disadvantageous. Yet, while this is so, it would be both inefficient a wrongful collusion with racism for the state to respond by providing a medical fix (such as skin whitening) for this social problem.

In the case of infertility, the parallel claim is that there is nothing not being able to have children (just as there is nothing being black, short, or ‘unattractive’). But, in our ‘pronatalist’ society, not being able to have children is disadvantageous because of discriminatory attitudes and practices. Some of these are general pro-parental ones applying to men and women alike such as the view that non-parents’ lives are inferior, with less meaning and purpose. Others more adversely affect women and reflect sexist attitudes, which encourage us to see women as essentially or naturally mothers, and as incomplete or defective if they remain childless. 22 ,

So, is funding infertility treatment in some respects like providing cosmetic surgery so that people can fit in with society's aesthetic norms, and like skin whitening in response to racism? Our view is that, although this critique of the medicalisation of infertility is not wholly without foundation, it fails to provide a strong enough reason to deny funding for infertility treatments in general or UTx in particular. For, although the harmful effects of infertility are pronatalism and sexism, discrimination is not the sole cause of that harm, nor is it the case that there would be no harm if it weren't for the discrimination.

There are two reasons for this. As has already been noted, AUFI does involve the subnormal functioning (or absence) of a bodily part or process and does deprive women of the option to become pregnant, and this would be so even in a utopia without sexist and pronatalist attitudes. Regarding the desire to parent, we concede that this may be encouraged and influenced by such attitudes. It may be that more women want children, and that those who want children desire them more forcefully, because of prevailing ideologies. However, it is implausible to see such desires as caused by these ideologies; even in a society with no sexism and pronatalism people would still want children. perhaps would want them, maybe they would want them and crucially maybe those who couldn't have them would . But it is implausible to suppose that a desire for parenthood is wholly down to pronatalism and sexism.

Infertility then is in a similar position to many (other) physical disabilities. Its proximate cause is what we might term impairment: the ‘malfunctioning’ of a bodily part or process leading to a lower than (statistically) normal level of ability. Sometimes this has direct negative effects (ones not dependent on social context) but other effects are caused or exacerbated by social context: disability discrimination, and in the case of infertility, pronatalism and sexism. 18 , Cashmere Silk Scarf Hope Does Float by VIDA VIDA GFWj0
, 25 Thus, however interpreted (and we have tried here to construct some sympathetic interpretations) the view that infertility is ‘social not medical’ is implausible; this is true of AUFI, which has very clear biological underpinnings. Its negative effects may well be exacerbated by pronatalist and sexist ideologies but these are certainly not their sole cause.

Finally, we have allowed an assumption to be made in this section that should not be allowed to stand unchallenged: the suggestion that the state should fund interventions that address disease. While this is not an issue on which we need to take a stand here, there may be sound policy reasons not to have this restriction. Imagine, for example, that it is entirely normal for people to have minor aches and pains: in other words, these are not the symptoms of disease but just part of the human condition (like feeling tired at the end of a busy day). If these aches and pains could be removed cheaply and beneficially through medication would there not be a case for state funding? Similarly, what about people who are anxious or shy but not sufficiently so for them to qualify as mentally ill? Again, if such things could be dealt with cheaply and beneficially through counselling or medication, would there not be a case for funding? We suggest therefore that there may be instances in which it is appropriate for the state to use its resources to address issues other than disease. And, if this is right, that would further weaken the argument which says that countries with socialised medical systems should not fund UTx because what it ‘treats’ is not a ‘proper’ disease. For even if it were not it could still merit ‘treatment’.

If it costs 10 times more to have a child via a uterus transplant than adoption or surrogacy, does that pregnancy have 10x the value? While we would never put a price on the mother-child bond, surely there is a higher opportunity cost with achieving a pregnancy with uterus transplantation than other ARTs? Handkerchief Navy wool flatknit with light blue stripes and edges Notch UWE Notch 3FtzVQHG

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The embattled chair of a London college that was at the centre of a bitter row with staff and local residents over its merger plans has dramatically resigned.

Mary Curnock Cook (pictured above), chair of Kensington Chelsea College, was said to have walked out of a governors’ meeting last night after announcing she was stepping down with immediate effect.

The college is looking for a new partner after its previously planned merger was called off following direct intervention by the FE commissioner Richard Atkins , which was triggered by fallout from the fire tragedy at nearby Grenfell Tower.

Ms Curnock Cook’s resignation with immediate effect was confirmed this morning.

Following discussions about her “continued chairmanship with the FE commissioner, the principal and the deputy chair” she said she had “come to the conclusion that the end of the academic year is the right time to stand down and allow new leadership to take the college through the next phase of its development”.

“I thank all members of the corporation and staff at KCC for their service while I have been chair and wish students and staff every success in the future,” she said.

She later tweeted that she “had always said she would stand down if her chairmanship was more of a hindrance than a help”.

Ian Valvona will step up as interim chair until a permanent replacement is appointed.

Ms Curnock Cook, the former boss of the University and Colleges Adminissions Service, took over as chair at KCC in May last year.

This was around the same time that a huge scandal broke around the Womens C035c23 E0015c Snake Pu Ballet Flats Buffalo SWmzYcusmk

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as it emerged that the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea planned to build housing over most of the site, with a much-reduced space for learning.

That prompted the Save Wornington campaign, with local residents – some of whom were caught up in the Grenfell Tower fire which claimed 72 lives in June last year – fighting to save their local campus.

Ms Curnock Cook became a focus for much of the embittered comments from staff and residents at a series of public meetings on the plans.

She eventually reached an agreement with RBKC to pause the redevelopment, but she repeatedly refused to cancel the merger.

Campaigners opposed this due to fears the resulting super-college would not retain the contentious Wornington campus in the long term.

The merger had been set to go through in January, but in December this was put on hold as the FE commissioner intervened.

It’s understood this came at the request of skills minister Anne Milton, who met with members of the campaign group.

In late January Mr Atkins told campaigners the merger was off .

The following month , the college board conceded “there was more we could have done to secure local community support for last year’s merger plans”.

It confirmed the college would co-operate with a new commissioner-led structure and prospects appraisal seeking a different merger partner.

At the time she vowed to stay on as chair, insisting that she had the full backing on the board.

“I have always seen my role to steer KCC to a secure and successful future,” she said. “This continues to be my priority.”

A college spokesperson paid tribute to Ms Curnock Cook, and said shehad “worked tirelessly to help lead the college through an unprecedented period of change and challenge. It is testament to her efforts that the college has retained a successful focus on improving teaching, learning and student achievements”.

Her “commitment to public service at such a complex point in the College’s history has been exemplary” and the college thanked her “for the key role she has played over the past year and wishes her well for the future”

KCC has yet to announce who its new merger partner is.

In a statement last week, a spokesperson said it was “continuing to work closely with the FE commissioner’s team on its structure and prospects appraisal to secure a new strategic partner”.

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to a secure future.

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Payal Gupta
iOS  Developer

With the release of iOS-11 , Apple introduced Drag and Drop in and with a specialized API that works on the concept of Interactions (something like gestures).

Table view and collection view have similar APIs to support drag and drop with some small differences.

Drag and drop is supported in both iPhone as well as iPad . On iPad, user can drag-drop within multiple apps. But for iPhone this support is provided only within a single app.

We’ll be discussing how drag and drop works in collection views and the same will be applicable to table views. I’ll point out the differences in table view wherever required. So don’t worry about it. You’ll get it working for both collection view as well as the table view.

Let’s get started🚀

Adopting drag and drop in collection view is a multi-step process. We’ll go through each and every detail required to integrate dragging and dropping elements in the collection view.


To enable drags , the custom object must conform to protocol.

It contains multiple methods that can be implemented to customize the drag behaviour of the collection view.

The only required method of this protocol you need to put in place to support drag behaviour is:

We’ll look into the method details in upcoming sections.

Also, set the delegate object of collection view in to manage the dragging of items from it.

UICollectionViewDropDelegate Protocol

To enable drops , the custom object must conform to protocol.

The only required method of this protocol is:

You can implement other methods as needed to customize the drop behavior of your collection view.

Also, assign your custom delegate object to the property of your collection view in .

Enabling Drag Interaction

To enable/disable drags, you can customize property of your collection view.

The default value of this property is true on iPad and false on iPhone.

So, set it to true to enable content dragging from your collection view if you are providing drag-drop support in iPhone.

Dragging a SingleItem

Now that we have configured our collection view to support drags and drops, its time to actually write the code that will make it happen.

Let’s start with the introduction to some important classes required to support drags and drops. Here we go:

Each item that needs to be dragged must be represented as an object of .

To allow dragging of items from your collection view, implement the only required method of and return one or more objects for the item at the specified .

OMG! 😯 What was that? Too much to understand..!!!

Don’t worry. We’ll go through each step in the below code:

Let’s see what the code says..

In case you want to ignore the drag, return an empty array.

Dragging MultipleItems

We have seen how to drag a single item from collection view. What if I want to drag multiple items in one go?

Well, we have a method to achieve that.

This method adds the specified items to an existing drag session.

Items are added to the active drag session with a single tap . If you do not implement this method, taps in the collection view trigger the selection of items or other behaviors.

It has the similar implementation as that of .

You can add your own constraints as per your requirement.

Example : ignore adding the item if it already exist in collection view in which you are dropping it. In this case return an empty array.

Drop Proposal — UICollectionViewDropProposal

We picked the item and then dragged it. Now, we cannot just keep on dragging the item for long. What to do with it now? Where to drop it? What will happen when I drop the item?

All of these questions point to a very specific one:“How do you intend to handle the drop at a specified location?Do you want to copy the item or just move it to a new position?Or do you want to forbid the movement in some specific conditions?Oh no..!! Can I just cancel it?”

Well well well..!!! There is a single answer to all your question —  Drop Proposal. A drop proposal as the name suggests is the proposal of how you intend to handle the drop at a specific location when the user lifts his finger.

UIDropProposal  — A configuration for the behavior of a drop interaction, required if a view accepts drop activities.

Each proposal defines an operation  —  enum UIDropOperation , that determines how a drag and drop activity resolves when the user drops a drag item. An operation is defined by can be of type:

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 — A subclass of UIDropProposal dedicated to collection views for handling drop proposals.

A collection view proposal also defines an optional intent  —  enum UICollectionViewDropIntent , that determines how to incorporate the content into the collection view. You can insert the content between items or add it to an existing item. Possible values of an intent are:

The collection view uses information to provide appropriate visual feedback to the user.

Now that we know what a drop proposal is, the thing we need to figure out now is how and where to implement it.

provides a method where you can specify the drop proposal you want to use, that is:

While the user is dragging content, the collection view calls this method repeatedly to determine how you would handle the drop if it occurred at the specified location.

Because this method is called repeatedly while the user drags over the collection view, your implementation should return as quickly as possible .

In the above code I have used 2 properties:

So here is what the above code speaks:

Handling Drop — Copy

After being clear about how we intend to handle the drop, let’s look at the implementation details of what we need to do once the actual drop is made.

To allow dropping of items in your collection view, implement the only required method of .

That is: — Tells your delegate to incorporate the drop data into the collection view.

This method provides you with a UICollectionViewDropCoordinator object that you can use to handle the drop. Using , you can fetch the below items to update your collection view’s data source:

Also, when incorporating items, use or methods of the object to animate the transition from the drag item's preview to the corresponding item in your collection view.

Let’s look at some code now.

The above code is pretty straight forward:

In case your drop proposal is , won’t be called for handling the drops and hence you need not do anything special about it.

If the proposed handling is , we need to reorder the items. We’ll discuss more about reordering in the next section.

In this section, let’s have a look at how to handle drop if we intend to the items.

You can use collection view’s to make changes in the collection view.

You can use this method in cases where you want to make multiple changes to the collection view in one single animated operation, as opposed to in several separate animations.

Deletes are processed before inserts in batch operations. This means the indexes for the deletions are processed relative to the indexes of the collection view’s state before the batch operation, and the indexes for the insertions are processed relative to the indexes of the state after all the deletions in the batch operation.

Here is how you can do it:

To get the data corresponding to dragged item, you can use one of the below options:

Handling Drop — Reordering

Reordering of the cells occur when the drop proposal is specified as —  move .

Reordering  — Moving an item from source index path to destination index path within same/different collection view or table view as per your requirement.

I am explicitly referring to table view here because table view and collection view handle reordering a bit differently. We’ll discuss both of them here.

In table views , reordering functionality is already available since a long time. And the good thing is we can continue using that 😅. No need to do anything special to support reordering in table views. You just need to:

won’t be called for handling drops if the above methods are implemented.

In collection views , reordering is handled in the same manner as copying. The only difference is —  in copying you were inserting a brand new item at the destination index path, but in reordering you need to delete an item from source index path and insert it at the destination index path.

The logic is changed a bit, rest everything remains same.

Note: the obtained from in could be the number of items in collection view if you try to reorder the item to the end of the collection view. In case of reordering, number of items in collection view remain same. So you need to handle that explicitly as it might throw runtime error.

Oh Wait! I have , but from where do I get ?

Well, we have an answer for that too.

can be obtained corresponding to each item fetched using . If the item is originated from the same collection view, this property contains the item’s original index path.

In the above code, a single item is reordered. You can do it for multiple items as per your requirement.

Reordering Speed — reorderingCadence

In case of reordering, when you drag an item over a collection view which accepts a drop, the collection view provides an appropriate visual feedback to the user — shifting/reordering the cells to accomodate a new one.

We can control the reordering speed for a better user experience using reorderingCadence of type enum UICollectionViewReorderingCadence on collection view object.

can have these possible values:

Set the appropriate value of on your collection view object in .

Drag Preview — UIDragPreviewParameters

When an item is lifted, the collection view uses the item’s visible bounds to create the preview by default. In case you want to customize the appearance of the item, you can achieve it through preview parameters.

UIDragPreviewParameters  — A set of parameters for adjusting the appearance of a drag item preview.

The parameters specify different visual aspects of the preview, including the background color and the visible area of the view associated with the preview.

In case you don’t want to make any changes to the drag preview, don’t implement this method or return if you implement it.

To customize the drag preview, implement method of .

That’s it. That’s all you need to get drop-drop working in collection and table view. Go on..give it a try!!

Sample Project

You can download the sample project from .


Don’t forget to read my other articles:

Feel free to leave comments in case you have any doubts.

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